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Barbara Kruger

American, b. 1945

Best known for layering aggressively directive slogans over black-and-white photographs culled from mainstream magazines, Barbara Kruger’s visual language is strongly influenced by her early work as a graphic designer at magazines including House and Garden, Mademoiselle, and Aperture. In bold black letters against a strip of red, some of her instantly recognizable slogans read “I shop, therefore I am,” and “Your body is a battleground.” Much of her text questions the viewer about feminism, classicism, consumerism, and individual autonomy and desire, while her images are appropriated from conventional publications selling the very ideas she is disputing. Kruger’s work has been exhibited in museums and galleries worldwide, as well as on billboards, bus cards, posters, a public park, a train station platform in France, and other public spaces.